Can be taught by the science teacher.
Producing, Executing and Performing
Developing Arts Literacies:
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Students explore the solar system through experimentation of mobile design in the style of Alexander Calder. Using independent research about the planets, teams of students create mobiles that compare the size of the Earth to other planets in the solar system.
Compare planet sizes
Explore the mobile designs of Alexander Calder
Experiment with force/distance/lever physics to create balance
Research basic information about the planets in the solar system
Design and build a mobile that compares the size of the Earth to another planet in the style of Calder
Large or Small Group Instruction
What You'll Need
1 Computer per Learner
Become familiar with the work of Alexander Calder by exploring National
Gallery of Art Kids, Calder Virtual Tour, and Calder Foundation. Become familiar with web information about the
solar system. Understand force/distance/lever physics. One resource is Fear of Physics and its
SeeSaw lab. Become familiar with
Virtual Mobile Design Web site. Become familiar with planet-size ratio
tool. (Note: Click on the word “compare” after setting the planets to be compared.) Become familiar with Planets in Balance 'Vocabulary' handout, available within the Resource Carousel.
Purchase or borrow inflatable earth ball. One source is
LiveScience. (You can select any size earth ball.) Schedule computer lab time, if necessary.
NOTE: Although some resources may include Pluto as a planet, in 2006, astronomers determined it was no longer a planet. Prior Student Knowledge
Mathematical ratios, basic solar system knowledge
Large Group Instruction
Students with physical disabilities may need modified movements.
Resources in Reach
Here are the resources you'll need for each activity, in order of instruction.
1. Present inflated earth ball to classroom. Ask students:
What is this? (
a model of the earth) What is the earth a part of? (
the solar system) What other planets are in the solar system? (
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune) NOTE: Pluto is no longer a planet. Do you think (Mercury) is smaller or larger than Earth?
(Ask about each of the planets. It’s OK if the students are incorrect in their guesses on planet sizes. The team research later will verify or correct their answers.) What mathematical tool can we use to compare the size of two objects? (
2. Share the planet-size ratio Use Mercury as the example. tool. (It comes up automatically.) Ask students, if we were to make an inflatable Mercury ball, what size would it be if our Earth ball were ___ inches? (For example, if your earth ball is 16 inches in diameter, your Mercury ball would be 6.4 inches in diameter. Divide 16 inches by 2.5, the ratio.)
NOTE: To engage the students in the discussion, you may want to toss the beach ball from student to student as they answer questions. You can also ask them what they know about the planets in general while tossing the earth ball.
3. Introduce students to an Alexander Calder constellation mobile. This is one of them. (A constellation mobile is a floating, balanced three-dimensional piece of art that represents something in the sky, such as planets, stars, or clouds. Calder was known for the creation of this type of mobile.) Ask students:
What is this? (
a mobile) What can you tell us about its design? (
it’s hanging, it’s in balance, there are larger pieces and smaller pieces, it moves, etc.) What knowledge do you think the artist must use to make a mobile like this? (
physics or science, math, creativity, understanding of balance) What do you think it might represent?
(answers will vary) Do you think an artist could create a mobile to represent the solar system?
Do you know the artist behind this piece of work?
(Alexander Calder -- It’s OK if they don’t know the artist. They will by the end of the lesson!)
1. Explore the work of Alexander Calder. As a class, visit one or more of the following sites: National Gallery of Art Kids, Calder Virtual Tour, and Calder Foundation.
2. Build understanding of force/distance/lever physics. Using the Distance and Force Exploration worksheet located within the Resource Carousel as a guide, working in teams, experiment with forces and distances applied to a lever.
(NOTE to teachers: The weight times the distance on one side of the lever must equal the weight times the distance on the other side for the ruler to be in balance. For example, 2 paper clips 2 inches from the fulcrum on the left will be in balance with 4 paper clips 1 inch from the fulcrum on the right.)
3. Review the terms from the Vocabulary handout located within the Resource Carousel.
1. Research planets in the solar system. Assign one planet to each team of students. Using solar system web sites and the planet-size ratio tool, complete the Planet Research worksheet located within the Resource Carousel.
2. Create a planet mobile. Using the planets’ ratio, create 2-D representations of Earth and the researched planet on poster board. Using the yard stick and ruler from the previous experiment, have each team create a planet mobile showing Earth and the other planet. The weight of the planets must be balanced by altering their distances from the fulcrum. The largest planet is Jupiter. To fit Jupiter on standard 22” x 28” poster board, its largest diameter will be 22 inches. Using the planet-size ratio tool, Jupiter is 11 times the size of Earth. Therefore, Earth would be only 2 inches in diameter for the mobile. If each team starts with a standard-size Earth for their mobiles, the class can then compare the sizes of the other planets too. Teams can include the Earth’s moon and the other planet’s satellite(s), if applicable. (The Earth is 3.7 times the size of its moon. Place the Earth and its moon on one side of the ruler, and the other planet and its satellite(s) on the other side.) Explain that even experts like Calder needed to experiment with placement of objects on a mobile to find balance.
3. Present planet research and mobiles to the class. Have each team share their findings with the class. Each team should describe their process for creating their mobiles.
1. Create a Planet Observatory. Hang mobiles in the classroom.
2. Conduct an inflatable earth ball discussion. Passing the ball from student to student, have each student share one fact or observation that he or she learned from the experience of researching planets. Pass the ball a second time and ask what they learned or observed by creating a Calder-type mobile. Ask students:
What other subjects could we use to create a Calder-type mobile?
(answers will vary, but may include leaves, snowflakes, constellations, geometric shapes, musical notes, etc.)
3. Have students fill out the Our Solar System handout located within the Resource Carousel during the discussion.
Assess the student's work using the
Assessment Rubric located within the Resource Carousel.
Throughout the nation, standards of learning are being revised, published and adopted. During this time of transition, ARTSEDGE will continually add connections to the Common Core, Next Generation Science standards and other standards to our existing lessons, in addition to the previous versions of the National Standards across the subject areas.
The Arts Standards used in ARTSEDGE Lessons are the 1994 voluntary national arts standards. The Arts learning standards were revised in 2014; please visit the
National Core Arts Standards ( http://nationalartsstandards.org) for more. The Kennedy Center is working on developing new lessons to connect to these standards, while maintaining the existing lesson library aligned to the Common Core, other state standards, and the 1994 National Standards for Arts Education.
Lessons connect to the National Standards for Arts Education, the Common Core Standards, and a range of other subject area standards.
Common Core/State Standards
Select state and grade(s) below, then click "Find" to display Common Core and state standards.
National Standards in Other Subjects
Math Standard 1:
Uses a variety of strategies in the problem-solving process
Math Standard 4:
Understands and applies basic and advanced properties of the concepts of measurement
Science Standard 3:
Understands the composition and structure of the universe and the Earth's place in it
Science Standard 10:
Understands forces and motion
Science Standard 12:
Understands the nature of scientific inquiry