This lesson can be taught by the classroom teacher, though support from an art teacher would certainly enhance the lesson.
Critical Thinking and Problem Solving
Connecting to History and Culture
Political cartoons provide an important record of the times. They reflect the values, conflicts and important issues in a society. Analyzing political cartoons will allow students to develop both factual knowledge and interpretive skills. It is easiest to teach this skill using a current event with which students are familiar. Once the students have mastered the analysis of current events, they should able to approach similar tasks with historical cartoons and drawings.
Analyze visual and language clues to determine the meaning of contemporary and historical political cartoons
Create a political cartoon based on a current event
Determined by Teacher
What You'll Need
1 Computer per Classroom
1 Computer per Learner
1 Computer per Small Group
This lesson can be executed using political cartoons from newspapers and magazines or from the internet. As indicated, a projector and computer with internet access are necessary if using cartoons from the internet.
Students must have background information before they can analyze a political cartoon or drawing, so it is easiest to teach this skill using a current event. Once the students have mastered the analysis of current events, they should able to approach similar tasks with historical cartoons and drawings.
Some students will have better working knowledge of current events and political issues than others. Teachers may choose to download a list of current news items from the internet or bring in the day’s newspaper in order to bring all students up to speed.
Teachers will need to find a variety of political cartoons, preferably displaying opposing sides of an issue. Many of these can also be found online.
Prior Student Knowledge
Familiarity with current events.
Ability to analyze and interpret current and historic events.
Cagel's Political Cartoonist Index
Daryl Cagel's PoliticalCartoons.com
AAEC: The Association of American Editorial Cartoonists
Large Group Instruction
Small Group Instruction
Display a variety of
cartoons about a current event that the students are familiar with as an introduction. Be sure that the cartoons represent opposing positions about the same topic.
Resources in Reach
Here are the resources you'll need for each activity, in order of instruction.
1. Display a variety of Be sure that the cartoons represent opposing positions about the same topic. Explain to the students that cartoons about a current event that the students are familiar with as an introduction. political cartoons are prejudiced and biased because they represent the artist's point of view, as does an editorial. They are intended to be controversial and characterized in nature. Their meaning is conveyed by both visual and verbal clues.
2. Read the following quote to the class:
"A cartoonist is a writer and artist, philosopher, and punster, cynic and community conscience. He seldom tells a joke, and often tells the truth, which is funnier. In addition, the cartoonist is more than a social critic who tries to amuse, infuriate, or educate. He is also, unconsciously, a reporter and historian. Cartoons of the past leave records of their times that reveal how people lived, what they thought, how they dressed and acted, what their amusements and prejudices were, and what the issues of the day were." (Ruff and Nelson, p. 75; see teacher references below).
3. Tell students that they will be analyzing political cartoons and then creating one of their own based on a current event. Students will create a variety of political cartoons displaying contrasting view points.
1. Distribute the 'Vocabulary' handout located within the Resource Carousel and talk about some of the elements present in the cartoons: caption, caricature, symbolism, proportional size of objects and people, and personification. Help students identify the personalities in the cartoons you have displayed and ask them what issue or event they think the cartoon is about. Ask the students what clues they used to determine their answer.
Divide students into small groups. Distribute a political cartoon to each group. Ask them to identify the elements in, and context for, the cartoon. Ask each group to share their drawings and their findings with the larger group.
The following are suggestions for analyzing cartoons:
Every cartoon should be placed in a historical and geographical context (i.e., time and place).
All personalities represented in a cartoon should be identified.
Cartoon analysis should finish with a description of the overall message of the cartoon.
Students must be taught how to interpret symbols, the visual clues sent out from the cartoon, as well as how to interpret captions, the verbal clues sent out from the cartoon.
Students need to pay attention to size and placement of people, objects, symbols, and writing on the cartoon.
Teachers should select cartoons according to the students' knowledge and ability level.
Teachers should get the class to brainstorm ideas to evoke different responses. Divergent answers should be accepted. Interpretation must be open-ended.
3. Explain to the class the following project assignment: Students will research a current event issue of their choice and create a political cartoon over the next week. Students should brainstorm possible issues using an editorial section from a newspaper or magazine. Ask students to identify other sources for material: television, Internet, etc. Have students use these resources to help them with their research:
1. One student from each group will summarize the group’s findings about the political cartoons they have been interpreting. The rest of the class should have an opportunity to weigh in about whether or not they agree with the group’s analysis of the cartoon.
1. Following the completion of the lesson, students will be given an assignment to create their own political cartoon depicting their opinion about a current issue.
After the completion of the project assignment, students will share their cartoon with the class, briefly describe the issue involved, and identify the key elements.
In each completed cartoon, is there visual evidence that the cartoon is based on viewpoint about a current issue?
In the oral presentation, was the student able to articulate both the issue and elements involved in his/her creation?
2. Assess the student's work using the 'Assessment Rubric' located within the Resource Carousel.
Extend the Learning
For homework or to lead off class discussion, students could read
The Cartoon by Herb Block, one cartoonist’s take on the role played by political cartoons. Guide questions could be established such as:
Why would Lucy, the character from
Peanuts, have made a good cartoonist according to Block? What does Block mean when he says that the political cartoon is a means for “puncturing pomposity?”
How do political cartoonists help “the good guys?”
How do political cartoonists’ relationships with their newspapers differ?
What does Block say about the “fairness” of political cartoons? What different opinions about this are held?
Common Core State Standards Initiative seeks to bring diverse state curricula into alignment through a set of common learning goals and assessments. In 2010, Standards were released for English language arts and mathematics. Common standards have not yet been released for science, social studies, and other subject areas, including the arts. In addition, some states have yet to, or have chosen not to, adopt the Common Core standards.
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National Standards For Arts Education