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Youtube

Arts Days: February 15, 2005: Your Fifteen Minutes of Fame
In 1968, American artist Andy Warhol claimed that “in the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes.”

Well, the future is now. The video-sharing website YouTube can make you—and your singing parrot, your foolhardy buddies, or your high-school orchestra playing Beethoven’s 9th Symphony—famous overnight.

Founded by three friends, YouTube makes it possible to view all kinds of interesting arts-related videos, to name just one category that YouTube covers. Viewers who register with the site can rate the videos, share them with friends, and even post them to their Facebook page. You can watch your favorite pop music videos or snippets of a Eugene O’Neill play. Or why not listen to jazz played in a tiny club in Ecuador or catch ballet dancers onstage in Paris, France?

It’s said that tens of thousands of new videos are uploaded to YouTube every single day.
Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Popular Culture, Movies & Movie Stars

Cinematography

Arts Days: February 13, 1895: The Light Brothers
August and Louis Lumière—French brothers whose last name means “light” in English—applied for and received a patent on their Cinématographe, which was part movie camera, part movie projector.

The year before, their father, Antoine, had gotten a peek at Thomas Edison’s peephole Kinetoscope. He was so excited by the machine’s possibilities that he rushed back home to describe it to his sons.

Antoine and his boys believed that the Kinetoscope’s main drawbacks were its huge size, coupled with the fact that only one person could view the movie at a time through a tiny peephole. Together, they worked hard to solve these problems with their own hand-cranked invention. If not for the Lumière brothers, we might still be lining up to peek through a hole in a box to watch a 30 second movie.
Inventions, Movies & Movie Stars

Sundance Film Festival

Arts Days: January 18, 1985: Sun Screened!
The Sundance Film Festival is the largest cinema festival in the United States, established to showcase American-made films and attract filmmakers to the state of Utah.

The first festival was held in 1978, originally known as the Utah/US Film Festival. But thanks to the involvement of actor and Utah resident Robert Redford, as well as the strong, supportive response from Hollywood studios eager for a venue to celebrate their works, the festival was propelled into the national spotlight.

In 1985, the Sundance Institute took over management of the festival, changing its name to the Sundance Film Festival. Today this annual event is the premier showcase for new work by both American and international independent filmmakers.
Inventions, Art Venues, Movies & Movie Stars, Popular Culture

Anna Pavlova

Arts Days: January 31, 1881: Turning Pointe in Ballet
After attending the classic ballet The Sleeping Beauty as a little girl, Anna Pavlova wanted nothing more than to be a ballerina.

At age ten, she was accepted to study at the renowned Imperial Ballet School in Saint Petersburg, Russia. For years, she struggled in training, finding basic ballet techniques difficult due to her arched feet and thin ankles—body parts ballet dancers rely on for balance and grace.

Nevertheless, Pavlova was determined to fulfill her dream, and so she enrolled in extra classes and practiced every day. Her hard work paid off, and when she graduated, she was invited to join the Imperial Ballet Company.

She is also credited for the design of the modern pointe shoe. To ease the stress on her curved feet, Pavlova strengthened her ballet slippers by adding a piece of hard wood on the soles for support and curving the box of the shoes to fit her arches.
Inventions, Dance Legends, Innovators & Pioneers, Ballet, Dance

Long Playing record

Arts Days: January 04, 1950: The 19 Minute Gift
Before the arrival of the cassette tape and compact disc, the big breakthrough in music recording was the invention of the LP, or long-playing record. Up until this point, the standard record was able to hold only four minutes of music; the LP could play for 23 minutes. Thank you recording company RCA Victor for those extra 19 minutes.
Inventions, Math, Music, Popular Culture

Radio

Arts Days: January 13, 1910: Turn It Up!
Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his 1896 invention of the radio, which was initially used by ships to communicate with stations on shore. Over a decade later, American inventor and opera lover, Lee de Forest, developed the radio receiver, bringing radio broadcasts to the public.

On this day in 1910, de Forest promoted the radio receiver by broadcasting a live performance of tenor Enrico Caruso from the Metropolitan Opera. At the time, only a small number of people owned radio receivers and could listen to the broadcast, which was sent over a telephone transmitter.
Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Math, Opera, Music

Celluloid Film

Arts Days: January 14, 1873: Better Films Through Chemistry
Cellulose nitrate, or celluloid, was originally trademarked on this day by John Hyatt for use in billiard balls.

Less than ten years later, inventor George Eastman experimented with the compound looking for an alternative to the glass plates used in photography. Eastman discovered celluloid could be melted down into a strong, yet extremely thin film, and in 1885 he introduced the first transparent photographic film.

With this, Thomas Edison’s notable invention, the motion picture camera, was able to record images in 1891, thanks to celluloid’s flexibility and strength. Unfortunately, it was also discovered that celluloid is a highly flammable material. Many lives were lost in theater fires and manufacturing accidents.
Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Movies & Movie Stars, Popular Culture

Circus

Arts Days: January 09, 1768: Send in the Clowns
Though acrobats, clowns, trapeze artists, and trained animals all existed before the modern circus, they’d never been under the same roof until Englishman Philip Astley, a former cavalry sergeant major, discovered his ability to perform stunts while standing atop his horse's back.

Realizing his talent’s potential entertainment value, he drew a ring in the ground and invited the public to witness his daring act. His display proved to be popular and Astley readily hired other trick riders, as well as clowns, and musicians to join his show. He built a roof over the ring, which he named Astley's Amphitheatre. Over the next thirty years, Astley took his show on the road and established 18 other circuses in major European cities.
Inventions, Art Venues, Innovators & Pioneers, Stunts & Special Effects, Animals, Europe, Popular Culture, Theater

Kodachrome

Arts Days: June 22, 2009: Photo Finish
Kodachrome was the favored film of many a photographer over the course of its 74-year history, but it simply could not compete with the rise of today’s digital media and development. When the company pulled the plug on Kodachrome, it accounted for only one percent of sales of all the film Kodak sold. Until then, it had been famous for the richness of color it imparted to photos and for the ability of images to retain their deep hues, even decades after they had been taken.

However, using the film meant you had to engage in a special, complex development process, or hire someone to do it for you, which made using Kodachrome more expensive for the photographer than other types of film. Still, many thought the extra cost was worth it.
Visual Arts, Inventions, History

33 1/3 Record

JUne 18: June 18, 1948: More Music
From this day until about 1990, the primary format to sell music was the “LP.”

This black vinyl disc inscribed with grooves, produced music when it spun on a turntable, originally called a phonograph. An engineer who worked at Columbia Records named Peter Goldmark figured out how to fit more music on the LP. Also called “records” or “albums,” LPs could hold up to 30 minutes of music on each side, a huge leap over other formats that might hold three or four minutes’ worth of music per side. (By the way, that 33 and 1/3 measurement refers to the number of revolutions per minute (RPM) required for the music to sound as the performer had intended it to.)

Goldmark’s invention made it much easier for music fans to purchase affordable music and enjoy very good sound quality.
Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Rock & Roll, Popular Culture, Music

First Motorola brand car radio

Arts Days: June 27, 1895: Joy Ride
When Paul Galvin and his brother Joseph formed the Galvin Manufacturing Co. in 1928, their goal was to make battery eliminators—a device that would let a battery-powered clock or other appliance run on a house’s electrical current. However, when the stock market crashed in 1929, the brothers teamed up with a radio parts company to design the first car radio.

It took hard work to figure out how and where to install the various parts needed for the radio, but the team eventually solved the problem. Galvin was soon driving around the U.S. teaching car dealers how to install radios in their vehicles. As demand grew, Galvin hired more people and sent more trucks out to do the installations.

Galvin Manufacturing eventually became Motorola, a company still around today based in Schaumberg, Illinois, not far from Galvin’s birthplace.
America, Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers

Mark Twain's Patented Scrapbook

Arts Days: June 24, 1873: More Than a Writer
Maybe you’re a fan of scrapbooking: pasting, taping, or otherwise attaching cutouts, photos, drawings, maps and other eye-catching items to the plain paper pages in a book.

If so, you’re in good company: None other than Mark Twain, the creator of Tom Sawyer and other beloved American fictional characters, was a “scrapping” fanatic; so much so that he even invented and secured a patent for what he called a self-pasting scrapbook, one that allowed the user to attach items without hunting for that glue bottle.
Innovators & Pioneers, Inventions, Literature, America

Player Piano

Arts Days: June 14, 1881: A Do-It-Yourself Piano
In Cambridge, Massachusetts, John McTammany, Jr. secured a patent for his “mechanical musical instrument,” a piano that was capable of reading the musical notes on thick rolls of paper and playing songs all by itself. Typically, the “autopiano,” as it was also known, had to have a way for air to move through it and for small pegs called hammers to strike the keys at the appropriate times.

While McTammany believed he had invented the “player” part of the piano, he didn’t take credit for the whole thing. In fact, many people over the 19th and 20th centuries had contributed bits of knowledge toward the progression in the instrument.
Inventions, Musical Instruments, Music

Adolphe Sax

Arts Days: May 17, 1846: The Sax Man
Belgian-born Adolphe Sax not only played musical instruments, he invented new ones, too. When he was 15, he made and musically mastered his own flutes and clarinets, even entering them in contests. Only a few years later, a kind of bugle he created laid the groundwork for a new family of instruments called the saxhorns.

The saxophone that bears his name proved to be the pinnacle of his ingenuity. Designed for use in orchestras and concert bands, Sax envisioned it as a woodwind instrument similar to the clarinet and played with a mouthpiece composed of a single reed (a thin strip of material that vibrates inside an instrument to create its distinctive sound). Inventing this new instrument gave Sax greater credibility among musicians and teachers of music.
Inventions, Musical Instruments, Music

Multiplane Camera

Arts Days: May 01, 1940: Animation Toon Up
When Walt Disney invented the multiplane camera, the art of animation took an official giant leap forward.

This special camera used stacks of glass. The lower stack was painted with objects that do not move, such as furniture, and the upper stacks displayed figures that do, including a certain famous Mouse. When these elements work together, the result was a screen filled with detailed characters that moved realistically, scenery that cast “shadows,” and the visual richness we’ve since come to take for granted in today’s animation.

In 1937, the short, The Old Mill, became the first animated work created with the multiplane camera. But because it was so expensive to use, from then on Disney and his staff reserved the multiplane camera for feature film projects only.

By the way, the American Film Institute has named Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs the greatest animated film of all time.
Inventions, Cartoons, Comics, & Animation, Innovators & Pioneers, Movies & Movie Stars, Popular Culture

3d Glasses

Arts Days: May 02, 1986: Image Maximus
It’s wild how putting on a pair of funny glasses in a movie theater can make you feel like an electric eel is swimming right into your face, or a helicopter is hovering about an inch over your head, but that’s exactly the effect that super-sized IMAX movies give when they’re designed for 3-D viewing.

When the 20-minute Transitions was shown on this day in Canada, it stunned viewers with some of its illusions: eggs appeared to break in your lap, and logs seemed to roll off a conveyor belt into the theater.

As the science of 3-D has developed further and IMAX theaters have opened around the world, more feature length 3-D movies have delighted viewers with their crazy, in-the-thick-of-the-action sensations. Now just imagine for a moment watching a 3-D IMAX film on the largest IMAX screen in the world in Sydney, Australia. It’s 96 feet high—the equivalent of an eight-story building. No wonder IMAX is short for “Image Maximum.”
Inventions, Movies & Movie Stars

iTunes

Arts Days: April 28, 2003: MP3 Mania
When a company named Apple, which had long sold computers and software, launched a Web store to sell digital versions of songs, music lovers realized the ways in which they would listen were changing. For decades, people had bought music scratched into vinyl records or wrapped in plastic boxes: eight-track tapes, cassettes, or CDs.

Apple’s venture made them wonder whether their collection—and the means to play it—would become obsolete. For that matter, the way artists recorded songs and record labels released them also changed with the rise of digital tunes. However, one of the biggest problems the digital music store created was pirating or illegal downloading of artist’s songs which considerably hurt sales. Still, the sound quality of digital tracks is top-notch.
Innovators & Pioneers, Inventions, Music

Hammond Organ

Arts Days: April 24, 1934: The First Organ Transplant
When an American inventor named Laurens Hammond demonstrated an organ without pipes on this day, musicians like George Gershwin were skeptical (though Gershwin bought one anyway). No one could quite believe that a pipeless electric organ could produce the majestic sounds of the pipe organ that had dominated church services and musical events for centuries. However, once Hammond’s organ was played, the skeptics grew silent.

Using a complex series of magnets, coils, and gears deep inside the console of the instrument, Hammond had created a new instrument capable of all the melodic richness of the pipe organ but in a much smaller size. The price couldn’t be beat, either—$1,250 compared to $4,000 and up for traditional organs, which used air pumped into the pipes by the organist to create their sound.
Musical Instruments, Music, Math, Inventions

Kinetoscope

Arts Days: April 14, 1896: The Very First Movie Projector
The kinetoscope was a huge lumbering machine that paved the way for the movie projector that makes the Cineplex and video cameras possible for 21st century film buffs. Although Thomas Edison really didn’t have much hope that “moving pictures” would go far, he knew this machine could display a series of still shots—of say, a horse jumping over a fence—so quickly that it would give the illusion that the horse was leaping right before the viewer’s very eyes.

The viewer, by the way, was peeking into the machine through a hole at the top, so only one person at a time could see the show. Edison set up the kinetoscope in a little building he called the Kinetographic Theater and invited dancers, acrobats, and others to perform for him as his invention acted like a camera as well as a projector.
Innovators & Pioneers, Inventions, Movies & Movie Stars

Leonardo Da Vinci

Arts Days: April 15, 1452: The Da Vinci Mode
Though some assume his last name was “da Vinci,” no one really knows the last name of perhaps the greatest all-around creative genius who ever lived. The left-handed Leonardo was so very good at so many things: painting (the portrait of Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and The Adoration of the Magi ), solving math problems, playing music, and technological inventiveness—he envisioned an early helicopter and other flying machines.

He learned about these subjects while apprenticing with various artists, doctors, and others, but his own curiosity helped him apply all he learned in entirely new ways. His interests fed off of one another. For example, his human anatomy sketches are stunning in their detail and accuracy, and that understanding of how bodies moved helped him to be a better painter. Leonardo also brought his deep understanding of geometry to his art, arranging figures in ways thought to be pleasing to the eye of the spectator. His contributions to art and science are impossible to measure.
Europe, Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Visual Arts

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