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Le Chat Noir

Arts Days: November 18, 1881: Come to the Cabaret
Today you think of these clubs as famous nightspots where celebrities like to hang out in Hollywood or New York. But back in Paris in the late 19th century, they were referred to as cabarets, and Le Chat Noir was perhaps the most legendary. Located in Paris’ fashionable, bohemian Montmartre neighborhood, Le Chat Noir, or “The Black Cat,” was envisioned by owner Rodolphe Salis as part nightclub, part salon.

Seated at crowded tables were well-known Parisian celebrities and their artist associates from around the world. On any given night, you could rub elbows with painter Pablo Picasso, composer Claude Debussy, or perhaps Jane Avril, the can-can dancer whom Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec immortalized in several paintings. They and countless others would talk, drink, flirt, and enjoy live performances. The party lasted until 1897, when the place closed up shop.
Art Venues, Europe, Popular Culture, Musicals

Alice's Adventures Underground

Arts Days: November 26, 1864: Down the Rabbit Hole
Reverend Dodgson was asked by ten-year-old Alice Liddell to write down the fantastic story he weaved for her and her sisters as they shared a rowboat ride in 1862. Dodgson complied, though it took him a couple of years to get the work done. He wrote a 15,000-word story filled with magical characters and strange leaps of logic.

Even as he offered the promised pages to his young friend, Dodgson was preparing to publish the book at nearly double its length by writing in fantastic new scenes (including a certain famous tea party). Using the pen name Lewis Carroll, Dodgson went on to publish his book under a new name—the mad-cap Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland.
Science Fiction & Fantasy, Literature, Europe, Cartoons, Comics, & Animation

William Shakespeare

Arts Days: November 01, 1604 and 1611: A Double Bill of Will
Was this William Shakespeare’s lucky day or just a coincidence that two of his best known plays premiered on the first day of the 11th month, seven years apart? Each play was first presented to King James I at the Palace of Whitehall, the decades-old main residence of the kings and queens of England.

It was customary for any new works to first be seen by the monarch and his court before any presentation to the general public. It is likely that for many years after these two debuts, both plays were indeed performed for the general public at playhouses like The Rose and The Globe. The demand for such entertainment was so great that chances are the ink was barely dry on the page when the first productions were mounted.
Shakespeare, Playwrights & Plays, Tragedy, Europe, Theater

Haystacks Summer Evening

Arts Days: November 14, 1840: A Light Impression
Many artists wear the Impressionist label today, but it was a painting by Claude Monet that gave this art movement its name. That moment happened when an art critic looked at Monet’s Impression, Sunrise and called it “impressionist.” Ironically, while the critic meant his remark as dismissive of Monet’s style, the term became associated with a much-loved and respected school of century art.

Many works by Monet are characterized by the hallmarks of Impressionism: soft and changeable light effects, visible brushstrokes that reveal the artist’s emotions and personality, and the use of everyday things and people as subjects—from haystacks to playful children. Monet loved the natural world, and simple things such as flowers, the river Seine, and his personal garden in Giverny, France, inspired him.
Innovators & Pioneers, Europe, Nature, Visual Arts

Grace Kelly

Arts Days: November 12, 1929: Beauty and Grace
From teenage model to Hollywood actress to the Princess of Monaco, Grace Kelly’s life was the stuff of fairy tales. She acted in TV shows, on stage, and in blockbuster movies, like Rear Window and Dial M for Murder.

Directors like Alfred Hitchcock adored Kelly’s golden hair and flawless features, and often cast her as the beautiful, but unattainable dream girl. But she also exhibited considerable acting talent in films like The Country Girl for which she earned an Academy Award® nomination. When she fell in love with and married Monaco’s Prince Rainier, the world—well, maybe just 30 million people—watched the royal wedding in awe on TV.
Movies & Movie Stars, Popular Culture, America, Television, Europe

The Dance Class painting by Edgar Degas

Arts Days: July 19, 1834: Dancing with Degas
Edgar Degas, one of the most productive 19th century artists and a master at charcoal, oil paint, and pastels, is considered one of the fathers of the Impressionist movement. Thing is, Degas himself disliked this term, preferring to call himself a realist when it came to the subjects he chose and the art he made.

He is best known for his paintings and sculptures of ballerinas, such as The Dance Class. Degas gave us glimpses of dancers waiting in the wings for their cues to go on stage, as well as audiences studying their moves. Mostly, he took his subjects from everyday life, catching a passing moment of motion and emotion.
Europe, Visual Arts

Alexandre Dumas

Arts Days: July 24, 1802: Adventure Hero
The man who wrote The Three Musketeers and other literary classics first dabbled in plays and magazine articles, many of which were well received by theatergoers and readers. In fact, some of Alexandre Dumas’ best-known works, including Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo, were serialized in magazines before they were published as novels.

Dumas was a literary superstar at the peak of his career and his name became synonymous with the adventure-packed historical novels at which he excelled. More importantly, no French writer since has been read by more people around the world than he.
Europe, Literature, Science Fiction & Fantasy

Jacques d’Amboise

Arts Days: July 28, 1934: Dancing for Joy
Few have done more to teach children about the joy of dance than this 1995 Kennedy Center Honoree.

D’Amboise was only 16 when he joined George Balanchine’s company, often partnered with Suzanne Farrell. As one of the earliest dancers and interpreters of Balanchine’s style, d’Amboise brought a powerful American energy to ballet.

When he was still a principal dancer of the New York City Ballet, Jacques d’Amboise founded the National Dance Institute, a program that teaches thousands of youngsters to dance and express themselves through ballet, jazz, and other forms of dance.
Europe, Dance, Dance Legends, Ballet, Choreographers

Louis Reard in a bikini

Arts Days: July 05, 1946: Less is More
An automobile engineer in his native country of France, Louis Reard also worked in his mother’s lingerie shop. He was competing with others to create the world’s tiniest swimsuit when he stitched together some pieces of cloth—totaling a mere 30 inches. He proudly debuted the “bikini,” which he named after Bikini Atoll, a tropical island in the Pacific.

At first, he had a hard time finding a woman willing to model the daring little number. But he did and then planned a big party to celebrate. At a pool in Paris, Reard’s model donned the bikini, and it was an instant hit, changing the future of swimwear fashion forever.
Fashion, Popular Culture, Europe

Rembrandt

Arts Days: July 15, 1606: Dutch Master
Dutch painter Rembrandt Van Rijn created beautiful paintings, including many naturalistic self-portraits. Even during his twenties, Rembrandt’s skills as a portrait painter were in great demand for his delicate attention to light and shadows, which he used to shape his subjects’ features.

He gained attention for works like the slightly gruesome The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, in which a doctor uses a corpse to show his students how human arm muscles work. Rembrandt sought to paint the most realistic-looking people and places he possibly could, whether they were richly hued paintings of everyday life in Holland or intricate etches of Biblical images.
Europe, Visual Arts

Johann Sebastian Bach

Arts Days: March 21, 1685: Bach Star
One of the greatest classical composers of all time, Johann Sebastian Bach wrote music we identify as belonging to the Baroque period, a century and a half (1600-1750) of European compositions that tend to be elaborate pieces with innovative, complex instrumentation. From the Brandenburg Concertos to the Mass in B Minor, Bach wrote ornate pieces of music for orchestras as well as for single instruments (such as the Sonata for Solo Violin).

He also wrote complex choral pieces like the St. Matthew Passion, which set part of the gospel according to Matthew to music and is meant to be sung by large groups of singers, accompanied by an orchestra. A trained and talented organist, Bach liked to write music that would fill up a huge concert hall or church.
Composers, Europe, Innovators & Pioneers, Music, Music Legends

Harry Houdini

Arts Days: March 24, 1874: Magic Maker
His family immigrated to the U.S. when Harry Houdini (then known as Ehrich Weiss) was just four years old. It wasn’t long before his taste for thrills was cemented; by age nine, he was a trapeze artist. He moved on to simple card tricks, but the magician and “escapologist” was always searching for the next stunt—the trick that would ensure his reputation as the man who routinely cheated death.

Using ingenious props—and sometimes swallowing keys he could spit up on command, or purposely dislocating his shoulders—Houdini upped the ante from, say, escaping from handcuffs to escaping from a straitjacket dangling from a building. Some of his stunts were the result of his superior strength and flexibility. Others made use of illusions or trapdoors. No matter what, his escapades thrilled audiences.
Innovators & Pioneers, Popular Culture, Controversial, Europe

Vincent Van Gogh

Arts Days: March 30, 1853: A Stroke of Genius
The work of Dutch painter Vincent Van Gogh is almost instantly recognizable with those big swirly brush strokes and short choppy ones, day-to-day subjects like haystacks and sunsets, and something harder to put your finger on: a pulsating kind of energy that almost makes the objects and figures seem to vibrate.

Van Gogh’s kinetic, passionate art was driven, sadly, by a lifetime of misfortune. He struggled with poverty, health problems, and depression; in fact, he’s well known for cutting off a piece of his own ear and giving it to a woman he knew, wrapped in newspaper.

One of the few constants in his life was his brother Theo, who helped him manage what money he did earn for his work and tried to support him emotionally as well. In works like Sunflowers and Starry Night, the creativity of the troubled genius Van Gogh touches us even today.
Europe, Visual Arts

Eiffel Tower

Arts Days: March 31, 1889: Tower of Power
This tower of iron is one of the most striking architectural structures in the world; with just a glance, you think of France. Located in Paris, it’s over 1,000 feet tall, and was the tallest structure ever built until the Chrysler Building was erected in New York City. Gustave Eiffel designed the tower that bears his name, while the chief engineer of his company, a man named Maurice Koechlin, figured out how the thing could actually stay up and be safe for visitors.

The Tower was the main entrance for the Exposition Universelle, a giant world fair held in 1889 that commemorated the century since the French Revolution. It took 300 workers months to attach the 18,000 pieces of iron that went into the Tower. The structure was supposed to be torn down after the Exposition was over, but the French government saw its value as a tourist attraction and a symbol of national pride.
Innovators & Pioneers, Architecture, Europe

The Sistene Chapel

Arts Days: March 06, 1475: Master of Arts
Nothing but making art was important to Michelangelo Buonarroti. As a young apprentice or someone who learns a skill from an expert, Michelangelo found his calling. He chose to study the art of the old masters and learn the technique of painting frescoes, or painting on wet plaster.

When the powerful Medici family of Florence heard the stories about this young genius, Lorenzo de’Medici supported the artist and his work. In the period we now call the Italian Renaissance, (15th–16th centuries), Michelangelo created many of the world’s greatest art masterpieces: sculptures including David and The Pietà, the architectural designs of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome, and perhaps his most cherished achievement, the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

This pictorial story about the creation of man is comprised of nine paintings and took Michelangelo three years to paint. It is believed to be the greatest work of art ever created by a single person.
Europe, Visual Arts

First photo taken with a camera

Arts Days: March 07, 1765: The Father of Fotos
Considering the impact that cameras and photography have had on the world, it’s a shame Joseph Nicéphore Niépce is not better known to us all. He’s considered one of the inventors of photography, and is said to have snapped the world’s very first photos, including one where a man is leading a horse.

Along the way, he dabbled with various chemicals, like silver chloride, which makes an image visible after it is exposed to light, and the process he invented called heliography. Around 1829, Niépce partnered with Louis Daguerre to try to achieve an improved photographic method; the men worked on the problem together until Niépce died in 1833.

When Daguerre went on to create the Daguerrotype—a kind of photograph printed on a mirror-like surface—the French government bought the rights to it, awarding money to both Daguerre and to the estate of Niépce, in recognition of the late inventor’s work.
Europe, Innovators & Pioneers, Inventions, Visual Arts

Frederick Chopin

Arts Days: March 01, 1810: Mr. Piano Man
Imagine writing complicated pieces of music when you are only seven years old. Someone who can do that—like Frederick Chopin—is called a prodigy, someone who at a young age displays amazing skills in music, art, or something else.

Chopin developed new ways of playing the piano that today are at the heart of what we call “Romantic music”—the term given to expressive, complex music written in Europe in the mid-19th to early 20th centuries.

Chopin also was known for his gifts at improvising where he would make up new combinations of notes in the course of playing something he had written already. Chopin’s last public performance took place in London in November 1848 where he played for fellow Polish refugees.
Composers, Musical Instruments, Music, Music Legends, Europe

Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Arts Days: February 25, 1841: A Lasting Impression
Renoir was an artist fascinated by light: how the sun looked shining on water, how a candle’s flickering changed the expression of someone sitting nearby, how shadows stretched long across the ground in the autumn.

Exploring these concepts, Renoir became one of the early members along with Claude Monet and Alfred Sisley of the Impressionist school, a style of 19th century art known for its exploration of light effects, broad brushstrokes, and ordinary subjects including people on the beach, flower gardens, and other scenes of everyday life.

Later in his career Renoir sought to achieve a more crisp style of painting. It’s thought this change was influenced by a trip he took to Italy in 1881 to study the great works of the Italian Renaissance, painted by artists like Raphael.
Europe, Visual Arts

Fashion

Arts Days: February 11, 1934: Mary Had a Little Skirt
On this very fashionable day, Ms. Quant captured the hearts, and legs, of women. Fashion designer Mary Quant is credited with inventing the miniskirt, one of the clothing articles most closely associated with the swinging 60s.

Ever practical, this designer thought that the skirt would make it easier for women to run after a bus. Quant opened her own boutique in a fashionable section of London, selling clothes she designed herself, including a funky little white collar you could attach to any dress to spiff it up.

But it’s the mini with which she’s forever associated, and which stylish women around the world still wear today.
Innovators & Pioneers, Fashion, Popular Culture, Europe

Jules Verne

Arts Days: February 08, 1828: A League of His Own
Would you believe that the submarine hadn’t even been invented when Jules Verne wrote Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, kicking off the sci-fi genre with a splash?

Even as a child, Verne was a visionary, writing adventure stories that previewed today’s modern conveniences and technological wonders including tall skyscrapers, gas-powered cars, helicopters, and even television.

But sometimes his imagination and curiosity got him into deep trouble. At 12, he snuck his way onto a ship bound for India, but luckily got caught before the ship left. Let’s just say that father Pierre was none too happy. Little Jules responded, "I shall from now on only travel in my imagination." And so he did.

While his early stories, like the one about exploring Africa in a hot-air balloon, were rejected by publishers, Verne stuck with it. Eventually that story, with a few changes, appeared in print in 1863 as “Five Weeks in a Balloon.” From then on, Verne wrote new works every year until he died.
Movies & Movie Stars, Science Fiction & Fantasy, Innovators & Pioneers, Literature, Europe

Johann Strauss II

Arts Days: February 09, 1867: Step, Slide, Step
Austria’s Johann Strauss, the Younger, would be absolutely amazed to know the extent to which his work “On the Beautiful Blue Danube” has endured as one of the best-known pieces of classical music.

At the time this 19th century successful composer and conductor, and son of Johann Strauss, The Elder, was known for his light dance music and operettas. But it was this waltz in particular, with its distinct melody and dance rhythms, that became the focus of every concert hall’s dance floor first in Vienna, and later in Europe.

In 1872, Strauss brought his Viennese waltz to America’s shores where the music and dance captivated the country. On this particular day, Blue Danube was performed at a concert of the Vienna Men’s Choral Association.

Strauss is credited with composing 500 waltzes, earning him the title of “Waltz King.”
Composers, Dance, Music, Orchestra, Europe

Molière

Arts Days: January 15, 1622: The Prince of French Farce
French playwright and actor Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, better known by his stage name Molière, is considered one of the greatest masters of Western comedy.

He studied acting and writing at the Collège de Clermont, a prestigious school in the heart of Paris. After graduating, he worked as an actor and playwright, dedicated to exploring new comedic ideas.

Molière wrote farces that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of French society. His fresh comedic style caught attention and praise from the French aristocracy, including King Louis XIV, who dubbed Molière's acting troupe "Troupe du Roi" (The King’s Troupe) and commissioned him to be the official author of court entertainments.
Comedy, Innovators & Pioneers, Playwrights & Plays, Europe

Circus

Arts Days: January 09, 1768: Send in the Clowns
Though acrobats, clowns, trapeze artists, and trained animals all existed before the modern circus, they’d never been under the same roof until Englishman Philip Astley, a former cavalry sergeant major, discovered his ability to perform stunts while standing atop his horse's back.

Realizing his talent’s potential entertainment value, he drew a ring in the ground and invited the public to witness his daring act. His display proved to be popular and Astley readily hired other trick riders, as well as clowns, and musicians to join his show. He built a roof over the ring, which he named Astley's Amphitheatre. Over the next thirty years, Astley took his show on the road and established 18 other circuses in major European cities.
Inventions, Art Venues, Innovators & Pioneers, Stunts & Special Effects, Animals, Europe, Popular Culture, Theater

Anne Frank

Arts Days: June 12, 1942: History in Her Own Words
Anne Frank’s diary, kept while her family was in hiding from the Nazis during World War II, is one of the most heartbreaking narratives to emerge from the Holocaust. Her journal is by turns funny, sad, and hopeful.

She received the diary on this day, her 13th birthday, and immediately began recording her innermost thoughts, as well as the astonishing story of her family’s hidden apartment in a building in Amsterdam. Through the unbearable tension of nearly two years, when the hidden occupants had to stay utterly quiet so the workers below would not grow suspicious, Anne Frank’s diary was a rare source of comfort for her.

She and her family were discovered in August 1944; all but her father perished in Nazi concentration camps.
History, Literature, Europe, Playwrights & Plays, Theater

Strauss

Arts Days: June 11, 1864: A Pioneer of the Modern Movement
This composer of Romantic and early-modern works understood the workings of an orchestra like few others have before or since.

As a young man, he used to frequent rehearsals of the Munich Court Orchestra and take lessons in music theory with some of the conductors. Strauss’ training and own innate talent for writing complex orchestral pieces led him in new directions as he got older; he started writing “tone poems,” pieces of music inspired by and written about a painting, novel, or some other non-musical source (his first tone poem was Don Juan). In addition, at the turn of the 19th century, Strauss began composing operas. He conducted many orchestras and also explored dissonance, combining chords in ways that sometimes startled listeners.
Composers, Europe, Music, Music Legends, Orchestra

Johannes Brahms

Arts Days: May 07, 1833 and 1840: A Couple of Romantics
The famous lilting melody we call “Brahms’s Lullaby” is named for its composer Johannes Brahms. Among his other works were his German Requiem for orchestra and chorus, numerous pieces for string quartet, and several symphonies. Classical music scholars tell us that Brahms was a perfectionist, working and re-working a musical piece. Yet with all his stirring works, it’s Brahms’s delicate lullaby that many people associate with him.

As for Tchaikovsky, he was a kingpin among composers of the Romantic era, creating sentimental melodies and ballet music (such as that for The Nutcracker), the opera Eugene Onegin, and symphonies. He taught music and served as a critic as well as a composer, and he was very well-regarded among fellow musicians, fans, and even the Tsar of Russia, who arranged a special pension for him.
Composers, Europe, Music, Music Legends, Orchestra

Salvador Dali

Arts Days: May 11, 1904: The Eccentric Dreamer
The school of artwork we call Surrealism took a radical leap forward when Salvador Dali teamed up with fellow Surrealists in the late 1920s. The Surrealists were rebelling against what they saw as predictable, traditional art, and Dali—who had already been kicked out of art school and was famous for his eccentric behavior and attire—fit right in.

His artworks—including The Persistence of Memory, with its clocks draped over trees, ledges, and what appears to be a piece of bone with a face not unlike Dali’s own— are filled with quirky images, startling contrasts, and symbolism (meaning that one object stood for something else—an idea, a memory, a concept). But some of his images are surprisingly sentimental: People he loved, like Lucia, a woman who took care of him when he was a child, appear frequently in his art.
Europe, Visual Arts, Innovators & Pioneers

Joan Miró

Arts Days: April 20, 1893: Señor of Surreal
The playful works of the Spanish painter and sculptor Joan Miró are admired and appreciated around the world today, but when he first created them, they shocked viewers. No one had ever seen serious paintings filled with colorful, cartoon-like blobs, some of which looked like animals or eyes or socks floating across the canvas.

Miró, who early in his career painted landscapes and still-lifes of recognizable objects, didn’t care about what people thought about his style of painting. What he cared about was rejecting what he saw as people’s narrow assumptions of what art was…and was not. He was part of a group of artists called the Surrealists, working in the 1920s that was creating art filled with startling, funny, or just plain odd images.
Europe, Visual Arts, Innovators & Pioneers

Augustus Julliard

Arts Days: April 19, 1836: Schooled in the Arts
Augustus Juilliard was born on a ship while his family made the crossing to America from their native France. Raised in Ohio, Juilliard moved to New York City when he was 30, amassing great wealth through his work in the textile industry. Juilliard went on to use his fortune to support a range of cultural and social causes, from the American Museum of Natural History to New York hospitals.

Juilliard is said to have loved music, in particular opera music. In his will, he left money toward the creation of a music school, which today we call The Juilliard School. Juilliard is admired around the world for its rigor in turning out young dancers, musicians, actors, and singers. Those who are admitted into the school have to have exceptional grades and proven talent in the performing arts.
Art Venues, Europe, Education, Music, Music Legends

Beethoven

Arts Days: April 27, 1810: Elise Who?
We´ll never know who the great German composer and piano virtuoso Ludwig van Beethoven had in mind when he wrote this delicate piano composition that is instantly recognizable after just a few notes. While it’s known as For Elise in English, its formal name is Bagatelle in A minor (a bagatelle is a short, light piece of music usually written for piano). Für Elise was actually jotted down right on the paper Beethoven used.

Some scholars think the reference indicates Beethoven wrote it for one of his girlfriends, but others say the informal name is the result of a transcription goof, and in fact the piece was intended to be Für Therese (a woman Beethoven had really wanted to marry but never did). At any rate, Für Elise is a charming work.
Math, Music Legends, Composers, Orchestra, Europe

Raphael

Arts Days: April 06, 1483: Renaissance Man
Raffaello Sanzio is considered one of the finest painters of the Italian Renaissance, which flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. And so, Raphael needs only one name. His paintings, including The Madonna of the Meadow and The School of Athens (one of the series of paintings in the Vatican’s Stanze di Rafaello, or “Raphael’s rooms”) are filled with trademarks of his signature techniques, from their rich, luminous colors to the graceful placement of his human figures.

Important apprenticeships, combined with his own abundant talent, set the stage for Raphael’s thriving career painting commissioned pieces for churches and royal palaces. There’s also no question he paid attention to what Leonardo da Vinci was doing. But in the end, Raphael’s style—its nod to classic Greek art, the soft light that pervades many of the images—came to be all his own.
Europe, Visual Arts

Hans Christian Andersen

Arts Days: April 02, 1805: Father Goose
You may have had fairy tales read to you when you were a little kid, but did you know they were written more than a hundred years ago—in Denmark? Generations of children around the world know and love Hans Christian Andersen’s fairy tales from “The Ugly Duckling” to “The Princess and the Pea.”

Even though he was Danish, some of the stories he wrote have inspired figures of speech common in the English language, like “the emperor has no clothes,” from the tale, “The Emperor’s New Clothes.” And more than one of his stories, like “The Little Mermaid,” have been turned into a feature film movie. Somehow, Andersen’s stories feel ageless, not tied to a particular time or place, which may be one reason why they continue to enchant young listeners today, no matter where they happen to live.
Europe, Folklore, Literature

Samuel Beckett

Arts Days: April 13, 1906: Post-Modern Poster Boy
Irish playwright and poet Samuel Beckett is considered the first Post-modernist writer. He explored some pretty bleak subjects in works like Waiting for Godot and Krapp’s Last Tape including loneliness, hopelessness, and isolation. His work attracted considerable attention in his day—and even still—for often tossing all conventions of character development and plot, even punctuation, straight out the window.

Some of his works attempted to capture the inner thoughts and feelings of his characters second by second. Beckett combined words and ideas in such innovative ways that he earned the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1969. But because Beckett was such a private person, the fame that accompanied this honor was a double-edged sword.
Controversial, Playwrights & Plays, Europe, Theater

Leonardo Da Vinci

Arts Days: April 15, 1452: The Da Vinci Mode
Though some assume his last name was “da Vinci,” no one really knows the last name of perhaps the greatest all-around creative genius who ever lived. The left-handed Leonardo was so very good at so many things: painting (the portrait of Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, and The Adoration of the Magi ), solving math problems, playing music, and technological inventiveness—he envisioned an early helicopter and other flying machines.

He learned about these subjects while apprenticing with various artists, doctors, and others, but his own curiosity helped him apply all he learned in entirely new ways. His interests fed off of one another. For example, his human anatomy sketches are stunning in their detail and accuracy, and that understanding of how bodies moved helped him to be a better painter. Leonardo also brought his deep understanding of geometry to his art, arranging figures in ways thought to be pleasing to the eye of the spectator. His contributions to art and science are impossible to measure.
Europe, Inventions, Innovators & Pioneers, Visual Arts

Vigeland

Arts Days: April 11, 1869: A Park of One’s Own
Sculptor Gustav Vigeland learned to carve wood when he was just a child, a skill that would serve him well as he moved on to working with different substances, like stone. At the end of the 19th century, he toured Italy and France where he visited the workshop of another great sculptor, Auguste Rodin.

Perhaps his greatest work is Vigeland Park, which came about when he persuaded the city of Oslo to give him a building in which to live and work. In exchange, he would give Oslo all of his subsequent creations. Today, on 80 acres of land, you can visit Vigeland Park, where hundreds of granite and bronze artworks stand, from whimsical statues of dancing babies to the Monolith, a 46-foot high totem depicting dozens of intertwined bodies rising up into the sky.
Europe, Visual Arts

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