English teacher with opportunities for collaboration with performing and visual arts teachers.
Creativity and Innovation
Connecting to History and Culture
Developing Arts Literacies:
This lesson is intended to have students investigate the idea of "monsters" in society. How have monsters been viewed, what purpose do they serve, why are they necessary? Students will begin by defining the idea of what a monster is. They will then read
Beowulf. The reading of Grendel by John Champlin Gardner will follow. Students will design and present their own conceptions of a monster. Learning Objectives
Demonstrate an understanding of the concept of a monster by creating and presenting (with a visual) a monster of their own conception.
Use Internet resources to research monsters.
Read and discuss
Beowulf by John Champlin Gardner. Write a brief, concise story about his/her monster and how it came to be.
Determined by Teacher
What You'll Need
1 Computer per Classroom
1 Computer per Learner
1 Computer per Small Group
Teachers will need to be well-versed in both
Beowulf and Grendel. They should have a working knowledge of the role of monsters in various cultures and how they are represented in the arts. Prior Student Knowledge
Students should be familiar with the role of monsters in society and various cultures.
Students should have basic research skills.
Media Center or Library
Large Group Instruction
Test internet connection Make necessary photocopies Accessibility Notes
ELL students should be encouraged to draw comparisons to the concept of monsters in the literature and arts of their native countries.
Resources in Reach
Here are the resources you'll need for each activity, in order of instruction.
1. Since music can serve as an excellent way to catch students' attention, play Toccata and Fugue in D Minor by J.S. Bach, Modest Mussorgsky's Night on a Bald Mountain, or some other "spooky" piece of music as a starting point.
2. Ask the students what the inspiration for this music might have been. Do they know other examples of music that seem to be inspired by a fear of monsters or that attempt to instill a sense of monsters approaching? (Examples include might include Edvard Grieg's In the Hall of the Mountain King, and the soundtrack from horror movies such as The Shining and Jaws.)
3. After asking students for examples, discuss monsters. Begin with a discussion of the idea of monsters. Use the following questions to guide the conversation.
Why do you think monsters exist?
Can you give examples of monsters from your childhood?
Can you give examples of the way we see monsters in our society?
What are the positive aspects of monsters?
What need did monsters fill in society in the past, what need might they fill now?
One or more of the following musical selections:
Toccata and Fugue in D Minor by J.S. Bach Modest Mussorgsky's
Night on a Bald Mountain Edvard Grieg's
In the Hall of the Mountain King, Soundtracks from horror movies such as
The Shining and Jaws
1. Have students view the video clip, Understanding the Music: Danse Macabre in which NSO Assistant Conductor Emil de Cou shares details about the original story that was the inspiration for the music and discusses how musical sounds effects are created.
2. Students should discuss how the composer, Camille Saint-Saens, musically portrayed the different characters in the graveyard. Ask students for suggestions of stories that contain "monster-like" characters; record their responses on the board . Then move to a discussion about the fact that , one of our earliest written pieces of literature, is a monster story. Beowulf
3. At this point, the class will begin conducting research on the Internet for Web sites about monsters. If computers with internet connection are not available in the classroom, then be sure to reserve time in the computer lab or library.
4. Instruct each student to find a site that deals with monsters. They should be prepared to report to the class about a specific monster (e.g.: Frankenstein, Golem, Dracula). Students should use the Monster Research Guide that can be found in the Resource Carousel to record their findings.
5. Have students present their findings about specific monsters to the rest of the class. They can enhance their presentation by either printing out images of their monster or using an LCD projector to share them with the class.
1. The class will read Beowulf. Read part of this story aloud and ask questions throughout the reading process to make sure the students are grasping the tale. Use the following as a basis for class discussion:
What is the role of women in
Beowulf? Is Beowulf an ideal hero and king? What are his character flaws?
From whose point of view is the story told? How does thie affect the reader?
2. Following discussion at the end of Beowulf, the class should proceed to the reading of Grendel by Gardner.
3. Have a class discussion at the end of Grendel. Use the following questions as a starting point for discussion:
Why do you think Gardner chose to use Grendel as a narrator?
How does the fact that Grendel is a monster affect the way the story is told?
How does Grendel feel about language?
4. During the reading of Grendel, assign the "Monster" creation project in which each student is to create a monster of his/her own. Distribute the Monster Creation Worksheet that can be found within the Resource Carousel. Explain that students will be creating their own monster and doing a multimedia presentation for the rest of the class.
The monster should have a background, name, and history or developmental tale that explains its existence.
There must be a visual representation of the monster.
Students should select music that represents their monster.
5. Allow students time to do research for and write their monster story. Students will also need time to create a visual representation of the monster and select music to represent it.
6. When students have completed the assignment, allow time for students to present their work to the rest of the class.
1. Explain to the class that, even today, there are many cultures that believe in the existence of monsters, demons, and other such creatures. Point out that, while most of us consider the notion of their existence unlikely, belief in monsters is not necessarily an unreasonable belief, and that it is, at very least, supported culturally, albeit not scientifically.
2. Explain to students that they are going to write an original story featuring the monster they have created. You may choose to have students do peer editing or peer review once the stories are done.
Use the You may wish to use these additional forms of assessment: Assessment Rubric that can be found within the Resource Carousel to evaluate students' learning.
Short-answer quizzes on the reading materials as needed. These quizzes are to check for student understanding of character and plot development, particularly since the reading materials are quite dense.
Reading quizzes are recommended, to ensure that the works are read.
Oral participation during discussion should be noted.
A brief paper should be written comparing and contrasting the two works
Beowulf and Grendel and the relationship between the two. Two concise, well-written pages will be reasonable for this essay. A brief report can be written describing the Internet sites about monsters and discussing how it relates to our study.
The monster itself is presented in an oral presentation. Grades should be based on completeness of presentation, and then to a somewhat lesser degree on the creativity and imaginativeness of the monster. Is the visual appropriate? Does the story make sense? Has clear effort been reflected?
Extending the Learning
Edsitement.com has a related lesson plan titled
Tales of the Supernatural, which explores the role of monsters in 18th and 19th century literature.
Throughout the nation, standards of learning are being revised, published and adopted. During this time of transition, ARTSEDGE will continually add connections to the Common Core, Next Generation Science standards and other standards to our existing lessons, in addition to the previous versions of the National Standards across the subject areas.
The Arts Standards used in ARTSEDGE Lessons are the 1994 voluntary national arts standards. The Arts learning standards were revised in 2014; please visit the
National Core Arts Standards ( http://nationalartsstandards.org) for more. The Kennedy Center is working on developing new lessons to connect to these standards, while maintaining the existing lesson library aligned to the Common Core, other state standards, and the 1994 National Standards for Arts Education.
Lessons connect to the National Standards for Arts Education, the Common Core Standards, and a range of other subject area standards.
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National Standards For Arts Education
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